Volume 3, Issue 2, December (2016)

  Determinants of Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Turkey:

Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey               1-14


Zeynep Elitas[1] Didem Pekkurnaz[2]

[1] Department of Labor Economics and Industrial Relations, Anadolu University, Eskisehir, Turkey, zeynepelitas@anadolu.edu.tr.

[2] Department of Economics, Baskent University, Ankara, Turkey, dpekkurnaz@baskent.edu.tr.


The aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship between sociodemographic determinants and exposure to secondhand smoke at different places as well as to compare the effects of these determinants for the years 2008 and 2012. Data set comes from 2008 and 2012 releases of Global Adult Tobacco Survey for Turkey. Logit models show that young people are disproportionately affected by passive smoking. In addition, males are more likely to be exposed to secondhand smoke at all places studied except for home. Decomposition analysis implies that (1) differences in the distribution of age and education categories between 2008 and 2012 significantly explain the difference in the secondhand smoke exposure at home between these years and (2) differences in the secondhand smoke exposure at work between 2008 and 2012 can be explained by the differences in the distribution of indoor smoking rules at work.

  Keywords:  Secondhand smoke exposure; Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition; smoke-free policy; nonlinear regression models; GATS.

JEL Codes: I10; C25.

doi: 10.5455/Elet.2016.3.2.1



  Does Financial Development Volatility Affect Growth Volatility of Industries In Pakistan?                                                            15-27  

Syed Faizan Iftikhar[1]  Waseem Abbas[2]

 [1] Applied Economics Research center, University of Karachi, Pakistan, e-mail;faizanburney@hotmail.com.

[2] Applied Economics Research center, University of Karachi, Pakistan.


This article investigates whether financial development volatility effect on growth volatility of industries? The findings of the study are based on panel data consisting of seven manufacturing industries listed at Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE) over the period of 1994-2013. The Results of this study reveal that financial development in banking sector diminishes growth volatilities of industries that highly depend upon external liquidity. Whereas, financial development volatility in banking sector increases growth volatility of industries. Further, combined effect of both volatilities, banking sector and stock market, also raise growth volatility of Industries. Policy implications that come out from this study that regulatory authority should closely observe the behavior of financial markets to ensure the stability in economic growth more precisely, industrial growth of country. In addition, this study also suggests that there should be further development in banking sector in order to sustain economic growth and stability in Pakistan.

  Keywords: Growth Volatility of Industries; Liquidity Needs; Volatility of Financial Development.

JEL Codes: C23; G00; O43.

doi: 10.5455/Elet.2016.3.2.2




  Reflections and Comments on Randomness                        28-33  
   Levent Özbek[1]

 [1] Ankara University Faculty of Science, Department of Statistics Modelling and Simulation Lab.  06100-Ankara Turkey, ozbek@science.ankara.edu.tr

This article is not directed to any purpose other than conveying the effort of understanding to the ones that are able to understand randomness.

  Keywords: Randomness; Deterministic; Probability; Stochastic.

JEL Codes: C00; B23; B49.

doi: 10.5455/Elet.2016.3.2.3